The Battle of Killiecrankie, the first battle of the Jacobite Wars, also referred to as the Battle of Rinrory (the name of the gentleman's house on the battlefield), took place on the evening of the 27 July 1689.

A superior Scottish Government army commanded by a highlander, General Hugh Mackay was defeated by mainly a highland Clan Army commanded by Lowlander Viscount Dundee.

The two armies reflected the two societies in Scotland at that time. The highland Gaels, the clans supporting Catholic James VI of Scotland and James II of England. The Scots speaking Lowland society supporting Protestant William and Mary.

James II & VII went into exile in December 1688 after being deposed by the Glorious Revolution in Scotland. In March 1689, he began the Williamite War in Ireland, with a simultaneous revolt led by Dundee, previously military commander in Scotland.

Hampered by lack of men and resources, Dundee gambled on a decisive battle which he hoped would attract wider support. Although Killiecrankie was an unexpected and stunning victory, his army suffered heavy casualties and he was killed in the final minutes. It did little to change the overall strategic position, and the Jacobites were unable to take advantage of their success.